Fukuoka Growth 2017-2018: 007. 福岡市のグローバル・ネットワーク(2) Global Networks of Fukuoka City (2)


007. 福岡市のグローバル・ネットワーク(2)
Global Networks of Fukuoka City (2)

Fukuoka Growth006では、福岡市のグローバル・ネットワーク活用事例を紹介しました。今回は、IRBC各都市のグローバル・ネットワーク活用事例を紹介します。さらに、前回の内容を踏まえて、福岡市のグローバル化とイノベーションの国際的なポジションを確認したうえで、福岡市がイノベーション創出都市となるために必要な課題について検討します。

Fukuoka Growth 006 introduced the case of global networks’ use of Fukuoka City. This edition 007 introduces examples of IRBC cities utilizing their global networks. Furthermore, based on the previous contents, this edition reviews the globalization of Fukuoka City and its global position in fostering innovation and examines the challenges necessary for Fukuoka city to become an innovation hub city.

海外のグローバル・ネットワーク事例①:シアトルの「GIX: Global Innovation Exchange」
2015年、シアトル・ベルビュー市(米国ワシントン州)において、米国ワシントン大学と、「中国のMIT」と呼ばれる清華大学が、Microsoft社による4,000万ドルの資金提供を受け、テクノロジーとイノベーションに特化した大学院(先端技術研究機関)「グローバル・イノベーション・エクスチェンジ(Global Innovation Exchange: GIX)」を共同で設立しました。GIXは、最先端のイノベーションを有する大学と出資者が、国境を超えて協力することで、イノベーションリーダーとなりうる人材を育成することを目指しています。2016年秋に、まず10名が北京の清華大学でプログラムを開始しました(*1)。2017年9月にベルビュー市の新しいキャンパスで開講されたテクノロジー・イノベーションの修士プログラムに入学した43名のうち、半数は米国と中国出身学生が占めていますが、残り半数は、カナダ、エストニア、フランス、インド、パキスタン、パラグアイ、ロシア、スイスなど世界各国から集まりました(*2)。10年後には約70倍となる3,000名の学生を受け入れることが目標とされていることから、GIXは、今後、さらにグローバルな人材の集積地となるでしょう。GIXでは、イノベーションリーダー育成のための取り組みの一環として、「GIXイノベーション・コンペティション(GIX Innovation Competition)」というコンペも実施されています。このコンペは、30歳以下の学生やイノベーターを対象に、現実性と将来性を兼ね備えたソリューションを募集するものです。2016年に開催された第1回コンペのテーマ「コネクテッド・デバイス、イノベーションと変化(Connected Devices, Innovation and Change)」には、世界中から300件にも上る応募が寄せられました。最優秀賞に選ばれたのは、「持ち運びのできる多様性物理解析機」、「持ち運びのできる空気清浄システム」、そして「簡単で低コストのVR用3D入力操作手袋」の3件です(参照:ワシントン大学(*3))。2017年に開催された第2回コンペも前年に引き続き「コネクテッド・デバイス(Connected Devices)」というテーマで実施されました。第2回目は、新たな試みとして、中国のO2O(online to offline)大手企業「美団-大衆点評(Meituan-Dianping)」と提携し、効率的で遂行可能な配達ソリューションとしての「出前ロボット」を募集する特別枠も設けられました(*4)。このことから、中国も将来活躍できるような人材の確保を見据えて、優秀でイノベーション創出志向の高い学生を世界中から誘引するGIXに対して、高い期待をかけていることが窺えます。
*1) https://www.xconomy.com/seattle/2016/12/05/global-innovation-exchange-plans-menu-of-ip-options-for-students/
*2) https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/10/09/u-washington-tsinghua-launch-innovation-focused-programs-part-microsoft-funded
*4)「美団-大衆点評」は、中国国内で出前アプリなどの提供を手がける大手企業。特別枠(Special Meituan-Dianping Track)については、https://www.geekwire.com/calendar-event/connected-devices-gix-2017-innovation-competition-project-registration/を参照。
* GIXの中国における現状については、本研究所インターンの賈春暉氏のレポート(2017年8月29日)を参照。

Examples of Use of Global Networks Abroad (1): Seattle’s “GIX: Global Innovation Exchange”
In 2015, in Bellevue City, Seattle (Washington State, USA), University of Washington and Tsinghua University, so-called “China’s MIT,” received funding of $ 40 million by Microsoft and jointly established “Global Innovation Exchange (GIX),” graduate school (advanced innovation research institute) specialized in technology and innovation. GIX aims to cultivate talents capable of becoming an innovation leader by collaborating across universities and investors with state-of-the-art innovation. In the fall of 2016, 10 people first started the program at Tsinghua University in Beijing (*1). Half of the 43 students enrolled in the Master’s Program in Technology Innovation, which was held at the new campus of UW in Bellevue City in September 2017, accounted for US and Chinese born students, the remaining half being from Canada, Estonia, France, India, Pakistan, Paraguay, Russia, Switzerland and elsewhere. (*2). As the goal is to accept 3,000 students, about 70 times, in 10 years, GIX will become a gathering place of more global human resources in the future. At GIX, as part of efforts to foster innovation leaders, “GIX Innovation Competition” is also held. This competition looks for solutions with reality and prospect from students and innovators under 30 years old. More than 300 entries were received from around the world under the theme of “Connected Devices, Innovation and Change” for the first competition held in 2016. Three items of “Portable Diverse Physics Analyzer,” “Portable Air Cleaning System,” and “Simple and Low-Cost 3D Input Operation Glove for VR” were selected as the first prizes (referred to University of Washington (*3)). The second competition was held in 2017, with the same theme of “Connected Devices” as the previous year. The second competition, as a new attempt, had a special prize that recruited delivery robots as an efficient and feasible delivery solution in partnership with China’s O2O (online to offline) leading enterprise “Meituan-Dianping” (*4). This clearly illustrates that China is also putting high expectations on GIX that is attracting excellently innovative students from all over the world, with a view to securing promising talents.
*1) https://www.xconomy.com/seattle/2016/12/05/global-innovation-exchange-plans-menu-of-ip-options-for-students/
*2) https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/10/09/u-washington-tsinghua-launch-innovation-focused-programs-part-microsoft-funded
*4)”Meituan-Dianping” is a major company dealing with provision of apps for delivery in China. For the special prize (Special Meituan-Dianping Track), referred to https://www.geekwire.com/calendar-event/connected-devices-gix-2017-innovation-competition-project-registration/.
* Referred to the report on the current situation of GIX in China (August 29, 2017) by our intern, Ms. Jia Chunhui.


Examples of Use of Global Networks Abroad (2): “AIMDay” of Uppsala University, Sweden
Located about 1 hour by car from the center of Stockholm city center, Uppsala University, the oldest in Scandinavia, is carrying out “AIMDay,” a project where researchers, experts, and people from corporates and organizations gather and discuss one problem for one hour. The procedure of “AIMDay” is; 1) issues are submitted from companies. 2) when researchers with an interest in that subject apply for participation, small discussion groups with a few from the enterprises and 5 or 6 from the researchers body, a total of 6 or 7, get formed, and 3) the schedule for “AIMDay” gets fixed. The fields of issues submitted from companies are not limited to innovation, but ranging from manufacturing industry to health-care industry such as cancer and diabetes. Discussion time is limited to 1 hour, but the follow-up process after discussion is also rich for creating new business. For example, if a good idea comes out during the discussion, you can apply for a funding system for commercialization, and you can receive support for application. “AIMDay” is currently being held not only in Sweden but also in other countries such as Oxford University and University of Edinburgh in the UK. The themes vary from “energy” (University of Edinburgh, June 2017), “aging” (Oxford University, July 2017), to “future manufacturing industry” (University of Edinburgh, January 2018), all of which are about cities’ growth. Sweden’s “AIMDay” initiative spreads to the UK, implementing practical methods for resolving issues in each city and for creating innovation.

右・左上) ウプサラ大学、左下)ウプサラ市内 Uppsala University, and the city view
右・左上) ウプサラ大学、左下)ウプサラ市内 Uppsala University, and the city view


Fukuoka’s Global Networks with IRBC Cities and Comparison of Indices Regarding Innovation
As described above, Fukuoka City and IRBC member cities are developing measures to create innovation taking advantage of the global networks. Now, let’s check the positions of the five cities of Helsinki, Barcelona, Seattle, Stockholm, and Fukuoka, whose case examples are introduced in this paper, in globalization and innovation. From “Cities on the ‘Third Axis’ plus 3,” we examine 8 indicators related to globalization and innovation and reorganize the five cities. Specifically, the “number of patent applications per 10,000 people (metropolitan area),” “GDP per employee (metropolitan area),” “annual business startup rate,” “number of QS World ranked universities “rank of the top university on QS,” “number of direct flight destinations,” “number of foreign born residents,” “international students in top university” are used. Unfortunately, at present, Fukuoka’s position is not far higher than other cities, but the ratio of international students, the indicator to represent diversity of human resources, is 11% as of 2016, which is close to Helsinki and Barcelona. As the ratio of international students increased by 2% from the survey in 2013 (Cities on the “Third Axis”), we can see that attracting a variety of talents and creating global networks and innovation have steadily been carried out.


Patent Applications
The number of patent applications per 10,000 residents, which is the standard for measuring innovation, is outstanding among the two Scandinavian cities (Stockholm 5.68, Helsinki 3.48) and Seattle (4.36), and the difference with Fukuoka (1.39) is about 2.5 times to 4 times.


Economic Power
Fukuoka is the lowest when comparing the GDP per employee of the five cities, GDP of the region divided by the number of workers in the region.


Startup Activities
In order to see how entrepreneurial culture is rooted in society of each city, the annual percentage of startup of each country was compared. Finland, Spain and Sweden are all over 10%, followed by the United States with 7.4%. Compared with these countries, Japan’s figure is 4.6%, which indicates that the entrepreneurial culture is not yet rooted.


Global Evaluation of Universities
In each metropolitan area, let’s compare the number of universities selected in the QS World University Ranking and the rank of the highest ranked university. The top school is the University of Washington, the only ranked school from Seattle, who established the GIX in cooperation with Tsinghua University (China). There are two schools from Scandinavia ranked within two hundred places. In Barcelona, the rank of the top school is low, but 4 schools are listed in the ranking. Fukuoka only has Kyushu University at the 135th place.


International Airport Function
In comparing the number of direct flight destinations of international airports of the five cities, the small figures of Fukuoka are remarkable, but the number of domestic flight destinations is larger than Helsinki and Barcelona.


Ratio of Overseas Human Resources
In comparing the percentage of foreign born residents in the five cities, one in about 4 people in Stockholm, one in about 5 people in Seattle is born in foreign countries. On the other hand, Fukuoka is the lowest with 1.9%, but the ratio of foreign students continues to increase as mentioned above, catching up with the other cities.


To Become an Innovation Hub City Utilizing Global Networks
Innovation, an indispensable element of sustainable growth of cities, is created through cross-cultural exchanges between ones from different fields, different industries, different sectors, and different cultures. The graph below combines index data related to globalization and innovation in the previous sections, and places the calculated scores on the scatter plot. For each index of globalization and innovation, you can see that all other cities have higher scores than Fukuoka. As mentioned, however, Fukuoka City has actively built global networks, including global startup support collaboration projects and IRBC participation. Promoting globalization through further reinforcement of such global network and innovation through effective use of global networks will be an important key for improving Fukuoka City’s position. In addition to this, in the future it is also desirable that entrepreneurs and private enterprises that create innovation get help to utilize the global network better. In recent years, translation applications and interpretation support tools are also spreading with more ease. Thanks to these recent technological improvements, the language barriers that have been a major bottleneck in going overseas so far have almost been removed. In Fukuoka City, the environment for new innovation is developed based on the existing global networks.


テキスト:研究員 山田 美里
Text: Researcher, Misato YAMADA

バックナンバー Previous issues: http://urc.or.jp/category/research_publication/publication/fukuokagrowth-2017

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