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12. “Qingdao, a Hub for Exchanges in the Pan Yellow Sea Region”

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[December 15, 2015] Fukuoka Growth 2015-2016 GlobalCityStatus リレーコラム View this post in pdf pdficon_small (840KB, Japanese)

Column 12. Qingdao, a Hub for Exchanges in the Pan Yellow Sea Region
— Working with Fukuoka to Reinforce the China-Japan-Korea Network —

(by Tang YIN, Senior Researcher)
Toward the end of November, I visited the Chinese city of Qingdao for the first time in six months in order to take part in a landscape-related international conference. Qingdao, which is only a two-hour direct flight from Fukuoka Airport is not particularly well known in Japan, and Japanese probably only recognize the name Tsingtao beer.
With a long coastline, however, the seaside Qingdao is blessed with a good climate and is extremely popular in China as a summer resort area. Furthermore, there are still numerous buildings and streets that were constructed during the period the city was controlled by Germany and possess an exotic atmosphere, and these are mainly located in the old part of the city. The vibrant city image of red bricks, green trees, deep-blue sea, and blue sky attracts various people. Since 2010, Qingdao has often been selected as the city whose residents are the happiest in China. The compact, appropriately-sized “countryside” has resulted in the city earning a reputation as a city easy to live in.
As one of the thirteen sub-provincial cities (equivalent to an ordinance-designated city in Japan), Qingdao has achieved strong economic growth since liberalization. In addition to Tsingtao Breweries, various leading Chinese companies, such as the major home appliance manufacturers Haier and Hisense, have located their headquarters in Qingdao. Furthermore, one cannot forget that the city’s strong economic growth is because of foreign companies. The city has received in excess of 50.0 billion dollars in direct foreign investment, and more than 6,400 foreign companies operate in the city. Of those, 114 are included in the list of 500 top global companies. (People’s Daily overseas edition, March 27, 2014)
Qingdao has extremely close ties with Japan. A Japanese Consulate General, Japanese schools, and Japanese Association are located in the city, and 1,044 Japanese companies have operations in the city (according to the Qingdao Japanese Consulate General website). Of those, 21 are from Kyushu region (according to a survey by Kyushu Economic Research Center).
As one of the leading deep-water, non-freezing ports in Asia, the Port of Qingdao is linked to more than 450 ports in 130 countries throughout the world. There are at least four regular weekly container ship runs to the Port of Hakata. Starting in May of this year, the New Century cruise ship began to use Qingdao as its home port and operate cruise tours that depart from Qingdao and make calls in several ports including Kagoshima, Nagasaki, and Hakata.
On the other hand, Fukuoka City and Qingdao launched economic exchanges through the 1999 food product business fair, and a mechanism for regular exchanges was established when Fukuoka joined the East Asian (Pan Yellow Sea) City Conference in 2000, a working-level meeting that Qingdao is also a member of. After that, Fukuoka and Qingdao further strengthened economic exchanges through various efforts—the two cities concluded an economic exchange memorandum of understanding in February 2003, PR activities for Fukuoka City’s Island City were undertaken at the Chinese International Electronic Home Appliance Expo held in Qingdao, and Qingdao exhibited goods at the Fukuoka International Trade Show. Furthermore, a Qingdao metal parts manufacturers opened an office in Fukuoka.
Fukuoka City has also signed economic exchange memorandums of understanding with Busan, Singapore, Dalian, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, and Seattle. The city’s advantageous geographical position close to Asia has resulted in an acceleration in exchanges with Asia, particularly China and Korea, and promoted the transformation of Fukuoka into an international economic hub.
Asian cities close to Fukuoka, Kyushu, have seen income levels rise and their sizes increase as their economies have rapidly grown, but they face serious environmental and social issues. There is a growing awareness that it will be difficult to effectively respond to these problems without strengthening intercity cooperation and mutual networks. At the tenth environment sectional meeting of the Organization for East Asia Economic Development (OEAED) held in Kitakyushu City, which eleven cities in the Pan Yellow Sea Region (Japan, China, and Korea) participate in, various points were confirmed including that member cities will jointly move forward with water treatment measures for the Pan Yellow Sea Region (October 21, 2015, Environmental News). In November, at the OEAED meeting held in Yantai, China, the Yantai Declaration, which states that efforts will be made to resolve various issues that have arisen on account of the three countries’ economic development, including environmental ones, by promoting cooperation in various fields including economy, trade, and tourism of member cities and supporting collaboration among multiple member cities. (Xinhuaxia News, November 26, 2015).
Qingdao’s growth leaps forward once every decade. We were shown around the yet-to-be-completed Huangdao Tangdao Bay Sea Park, which we got to through the Qingdao-Jiaozhou Bay Tunnel, a tunnel that is about twice as long as the Kanmon Tunnel. Until the 1990s, Qingdao’s development was centered on the old city located in the southwest part of the city, but after that, the city offices were moved east, and construction of urban infrastructure such as roads and hotels accelerated, creating a relatively new city area compared to the old city, which retained its old street.
Then, since 2000, Qingdao was been connected to the Huangdao District as the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge and Qingdao-Jiaozhou Bay Tunnel were opened, and there are plans to dramatically expanded the area of Qingdao’s urban space and grow the city into one of 10.00 million by 2020. (Hantoto-shi Daily, Nov. 21, 2014). One of the driving forces behind this growth is greater economic cooperation with areas on the opposite side of the Pan Yellow Sea Region—that is, Japan and Korea. Qingdao has extensive trade relations with and makes a lot of investments in Japan and Korea, and it shares numerous points in common with Fukuoka in regard to striving to create an easy-to-live-in city. There is a need to not only make use of various platforms for exchanges that have already been created by cities in the area with the greatest flow of people, goods, and money and that meet needs and supplier-developed solutions but also tie it to policy cooperation and new business development, such as information sharing.

12. 環黄海地域の交流拠点都市・青島
~福岡とともに日中韓のネットワーク強化を目指して~

✔中国国内で「幸福度の高い都市」として定評がある
✔国内企業本社だけでなく多数の外資系企業が立地している
✔環黄海対岸地域にある日本及び韓国との経済協力の拡大が進む
テキスト:主任研究員 唐 寅
fggcs2015_12_photo01_2fggcs2015_12_photo01_111月下旬、景観関連の国際会議に出席するために、半年ぶりに中国の青島市を訪れました。福岡空港から直行便でわずか2時間で行ける青島ですが、日本での知名度は必ずしも高くなく、青島ビールで名前を知っている程度ではないでしょうか。



fggcs2015_12_photo02_5しかし、長い海岸線を有する海浜都市青島は気候に恵まれ、中国では避暑地としての人気は非常に高い地域です。またドイツが統治していた時代に作り上げた異国情緒漂う建物や街並みは旧市街地一帯を中心に今も数多く残っており、“紅瓦緑樹、碧海藍天”(康有為)※注1という鮮やかな都市イメージが人々を惹きつけています。2010年以降、青島は中国国内での「幸福度の高い都市」としてたびたび1位に選ばれ、コンパクトで「適度に田舎」であることが住みよいまちとしての定評につながっています。(青島新聞網http://news.qingdaonews.com/qingdao/2015-06/24/content_11121407.htm

fggcs2015_12_photo02_1 fggcs2015_12_photo02_2 fggcs2015_12_photo02_4

青島は中国の13の副省級都市(日本の政令指定都市に相当)の一つとして、改革開放後に大きな経済成長を成し遂げてきました。青島ビールを始め、大手家電メーカであるハイアール(海璽)やハイセンス(海信)など、中国を代表する大手企業はここ青島に本社を据えています。また、青島経済成長の背景に外資系企業の活躍も見逃せません。青島市はこれまでに500億ドル以上の海外直接投資を受け入れ、6,400社以上の外資系企業が現在も操業しており、そのうちの114社はいわゆる世界500強の分類に入る有名企業です。(2014/03/27 人民日报海外版)

青島は日本との関係も非常に密接です。青島には日本総領事館、日本人学校、日本人会があり、日本企業も1,044社が進出しています(青島日本総領事館HP)。そのうち九州福岡から進出している企業は21社あります(九州経済調査協会調べ)。

現在、青島港はアジア有数の深水不凍港として、世界130カ国450以上の港とつながっていて、博多港とも毎週4便以上のコンテナ定期航路を持っています。今年5月から、青島港を母港とするクルーズ船「ニューセンチュリー号」が就航し、青島から九州の鹿児島、長崎、博多港等を周遊するクルージングツアーが始まりました。(2015/05/29 齐鲁晚报)

一方、福岡市と青島市は1999年の食品商談会などを通じて経済交流を開始し、2000年に福岡市が青島市も加盟する「東アジア(環黄海)都市会議」実務者会議に加わったことで定期交流のメカニズムが出来上がりました。その後、2003年2月に青島市と「経済交流に関する覚書」を結び、青島市で開かれる「中国国際電子家電博覧会」で福岡市のアイランドシティをPRするほか、福岡国際見本市に青島市が物産を出展するなど経済交流が進められました。青島の金属部品メーカが福岡事務所を開設したこともありました。  

このほかにも、福岡市は、釜山、シンガポール、大連、広州、杭州、シアトルとも経済交流覚書を結んでいます。アジアに隣接する地理的な好条件から、中韓を中心としたアジアとの交流を加速し、福岡市の国際経済拠点化を進展させてきた経緯があります。(2003/02/06、2007/05/25 西日本新聞)

今、九州福岡をめぐるアジア近隣都市は、急激な経済成長に伴い、所得水準の向上と都市規模の拡大がもたらされる一方、深刻な環境問題や社会問題にも直面しています。都市間の連携や相互のネットワークの強化なくしてこれらの問題に効果的対処することは困難であるとの認識が深まっています。10月に北九州市で開催された日本、中国、韓国の環黄海11都市が参加する「東アジア経済交流推進機構(OEAED)」の第10回環境部会では、「水処理対策」をテーマに、環黄海地域の水処理対策を参加都市が共同で推進していくことなどが確認されたばかりです(2015/10/21 環境新聞)。11月に中国煙台市で開かれた「東アジア経済交流推進機構総会」では、「会員都市間における経済・貿易や観光などの分野での提携を促進し、各会員都市による複数の都市との提携を支援して、3カ国の経済発展が直面する環境などの課題の解決を目指す」『煙台宣言』が採択されました。(2015/11/26 新華社ニュース)

fggcs2015_12_photo03_1 fggcs2015_12_photo03_2 fggcs2015_12_photo03_3
青島はおよそ10年おきに成長のステップアップをしています。我々は関門トンネルの倍ぐらいの長さもある胶州湾海底トンネルを通って、まだ完成していない黄島区唐島湾海浜公園一帯を案内されました。1990年代までに南西部の旧市街地を中心に展開していた青島は、その後市役所を東に移転し、道路やホテルなどの都市インフラを加速度的に整備し、かつての街並みを残す旧市街地とは対照的な新市街地を作り上げました。

fggcs2015_12_photo04_1fggcs2015_12_photo04_2そして2000年以降、胶州湾大橋と胶州湾海底トンネルを開通させたことによって黄島新区との一体化を図り、青島市の都市空間を大幅に拡張させ、2020年までに1,000万人都市へと成長する青写真が描かれています。(2014/11/21 半島都市報)その推進力の一つは環黄海対岸地域にある日本及び韓国との経済協力の拡大です。

青島にとって日韓は主な貿易投資対象国であり、住みよいまちづくりを目指している点で福岡と共通する部分も多いはずです。ニーズとシーズが合致し、ヒト、モノ、カネの流れが最も多い近隣都市がこれまで築いてきた様々な交流プラットフォームを活用し、情報交換をはじめ、政策協力やニュービジネス発掘につなげていく努力が求められています。

[※注釈1:“紅瓦緑樹、碧海藍天”(康有為)…「赤い煉瓦、緑の木々、紺碧の海、青い空」の青島地域の風情を表す言葉。康有為は中国・清末民初にかけての思想家・政治家・書家。]
Image is for illustration purposes only. (Photos are taken in Qingdao City and Fukuoka City)
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